High priority taxa

Following taxa (55 out of 84) were found to be high priority taxa to collect:

  • P. albiflorus
  • P. albiviolaceus
  • P. altimontanus
  • P. amabilis
  • P. amblyosepalus
  • P. anisophyllus
  • P. carteri
  • P. chacoensis
  • P. chiapasanus
  • P. coccineus subsp. coccineus
  • P. coccineus subsp. darwinianus
  • P. coccineus subsp. formosus
  • P. coccineus var. griseus
  • P. coccineus subsp. striatus var. purpurascens
  • P. diversifolius
  • P. elongatus
  • P. esperanzae
  • P. esquincensis
  • P. falciformis
  • P. formosus
  • P. fraternus
  • P. galactoides
  • P. jaliscanus
  • P. laxiflorus
  • P. leptostachyus var. intonsus
  • P. leptostachyus var. leptostachyus
  • P. leptostachyus var. nanus
  • P. macrolepis
  • P. macvaughii
  • P. marechalii
  • P. micranthus
  • P. mollis
  • P. nelsonii
  • P. novoleonensis
  • P. oaxacanus
  • P. opacus
  • P. pachycarpus
  • P. pauper
  • P. perplexus
  • P. plagiocylix
  • P. polymorphus
  • P. polystachios
  • P. polystachios subsp. smilacifolius
  • P. reticulatus
  • P. ritensis
  • P. rosei
  • P. rotundatus
  • P. salicifolius
  • P. sonorensis
  • P. tenellus
  • P. tenuifolius
  • P. texensis
  • P. trifidus
  • P. venosus
  • P. xolocotzii

See the priorities list here

Identified gaps for Phaseolus genepool

(see downloads)

El género Phaseolus comprende alrededor de 50 especies (Debouck, 1988), en donde las especies P. vulgaris (frijol común), P. coccineus (ayocote), P. acutifolius (frijol tépari), P. dumosus (frijol cacha) y P. lunatus (frijol Lima) corresponden a las especies cultivadas. La organización de la diversidad genética en el género Phaseolus está basada en la habilidad de las especies de cruzarse con P. vulgaris, se ha sugerido que tal organización está dividida en cuatro acervos genéticos diferentes de acuerdo a relaciones filogenéticas (Smartt, 1980; Singh and Jauhar, 2005), como se muestra en la siguiente tabla:

Primary genepool
Secondary genepool
Tertiary genepool
Quaternary genepool
P. vulgaris cultivars, landraces and wild specimens
P. coccineus
P. acutifolius
P. lunatus
P. polyanthus (syn. P. dumosus)
P. parvifolius
P. costaricensis

We have gathered data from different sources: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the System-wide Information Network for Genetic Resources (SINGER) and the Genetic Resources Information Network (GRIN). We found data for 70 wild species and 14 infraspecific taxa, accounting to a total of 84 taxa for analysis.

The analysis dataset (download) contained 5,146 observations, with 2,879 (56%) being herbarium specimens and 2,267 (44%) being genebank accessions. The average number of total samples per taxon was 61 (standard deviation of 148), indicating that available data is relatively abundant, although it is concentrated in certain taxa (i.e. P. acutifolius, P. angustissimus, P. coccineus, P. filiformis, P. leptostachyus, P. lunatus, P. polystachios, P. vulgaris). Other taxa such as P. albiviolaceus (1), P. fraternus (1) and P. micranthus (1), along with others, present a very limited sampling and/or data availability and thus need further characterization and sampling for assessing a reliable ecogeographic evaluation on them.

The gap analysis of the Phaseolus genepool showed that there are 55 taxa that are either underrepresented or not represented in any way in genebanks out of the 84 taxa under analysis and these taxa were therefore flagged as high priority species. 49 of these taxa presented only 10 or less data points (sum of herbarium and germplasm), which indicate that these species in particular need to be further collected (i.e. P. albiviolaceus, P. amabilis, P. chacoensis, P. diversifolius, P. elongatus, P. fraternus, P. laxiflorus, P. micranthus, P. mollis, P. ritensis, P. opacus, P. pachycarpus). There are some taxa such as P. coccineus subsp. coccineus, P. coccineus var. griseus, P. coccineus subsp. darwinianus, P. coccineus subsp. formosus, P. coccineus subsp. striatus var. purpurascens that were flagged as high priority taxa, but they appear to be a classification issue rather than being a conservation issue (as P. coccineus was found to be well conserved ex-situ); and the same happens with P. leptostachyus var. intonsus and P. leptostachyus var. nanus.

Potential sampling zones

GE View in Google Earth

Phaseolus high priority taxa were found to be mostly distributed in Central America. Zones in the map above are those in which the species is likely to exist and no genebank accessions have been collected.

Potential sampling richness

GE View in Google Earth

The greatest sampling-richness was found in Mexico.

Brief description of data used in the analysis

The table below shows the number of records (herbarium, germplasm, total) used per species for the Phaseolus genepool gap analysis.

Species
Genebank accessions
Herbarium samples
Total
Phaseolus albiflorus
5
0
5
Phaseolus albiviolaceus
0
1
1
Phaseolus altimontanus
2
1
3
Phaseolus amabilis
0
1
1
Phaseolus amblyosepalus
0
10
10
Phaseolus anisophyllus
0
2
2
Phaseolus carteri
5
2
7
Phaseolus chacoensis
0
1
1
Phaseolus chiapasanus
6
5
11
Phaseolus coccineus subsp. coccineus
0
35
35
Phaseolus coccineus subsp. darwinianus
0
1
1
Phaseolus coccineus subsp. formosus 0 3 3
Phaseolus coccineus var. griseus
0
1
1
Phaseolus coccineus subsp. striatus var. purpurascens
2
0
2
Phaseolus diversifolius
0
1
1
Phaseolus elongatus
0
1
1
Phaseolus esperanzae
1
1
2
Phaseolus esquincensis
0
4
4
Phaseolus falciformis
0
3
3
Phaseolus formosus
0
7
7
Phaseolus fraternus
0
1
1
Phaseolus galactoides
4
10
14
Phaseolus jaliscanus
1
5
6
Phaseolus laxiflorus
0
1
1
Phaseolus leptostachyus var. intonsus
0
1
1
Phaseolus leptostachyus var. leptostachyus
0
50
50
Phaseolus leptostachyus var. nanus
0
1
1
Phaseolus macrolepis
3
1
4
Phaseolus macvaughii
2
4
6
Phaseolus marechalii
1
1
2
Phaseolus micranthus
1
0
1
Phaseolus mollis
0
1
1
Phaseolus nelsonii
0
28
28
Phaseolus ritensis
0
1
1
Phaseolus novoleonensis
2
2
4
Phaseolus oaxacanus
0
2
2
Phaseolus opacus
0
1
1
Phaseolus pachycarpus
0
1
1
Phaseolus pauper
0
2
2
Phaseolus perplexus
1
7
8
Phaseolus plagiocylix
0
2
2
Phaseolus polymorphus
1
5
6
Phaseolus polystachios
1
323
324
Phaseolus polystachios subsp. smilacifolius
0
2
2
Phaseolus reticulatus
1
4
5
Phaseolus rosei
0
2
2
Phaseolus rotundatus
2
1
3
Phaseolus salicifolius
1
2
3
Phaseolus sonorensis
0
2
2
Phaseolus tenellus
0
4
4
Phaseolus tenuifolius
0
2
2
Phaseolus texensis
1
0
1
Phaseolus trifidus
0
1
1
Phaseolus venosus
0
6
6
Phaseolus xolocotzii
0
1
1
Phaseolus acutifolius
29
7
36
Phaseolus acutifolius var. acutifolius
119
64
183
Phaseolus acutifolius var. tenuifolius
152
98
250
Phaseolus coccineus
283
273
556
Phaseolus costaricensis
14
46
60
Phaseolus filiformis
58
307
365
Phaseolus glabellus
10
10
20
Phaseolus grayanus
30
28
58
Phaseolus leptostachyus
76
135
211
Phaseolus lunatus
181
279
460
Phaseolus maculatus subsp. ritensis
31
94
125
Phaseolus oligospermus
11
21
32
Phaseolus parvifolius
34
42
76
Phaseolus pauciflorus
2
105
107
Phaseolus talamancensis
1
17
18
Phaseolus angustissimus
11
211
222
Phaseolus maculatus subsp. maculatus
21
128
149
Phaseolus parvulus
11
73
84
Phaseolus pedicellatus
5
63
68
Phaseolus pluriflorus
7
43
50
Phaseolus tuerckheimii
3
17
20
Phaseolus augusti
54
20
74
Phaseolus dumosus
94
85
179
Phaseolus maculatus
12
0
12
Phaseolus neglectus
8
7
15
Phaseolus pachyrrhizoides
21
3
24
Phaseolus vulgaris
893
133
1026
Phaseolus xanthotrichus
26
8
34
Phaseolus zimapanensis
27
5
32

Species’ taxonomy was reviewed using Maxted and Kell (2009) as a first stage, the GRIN taxonomical review in second place. After cross-checking and correcting both synonyms and orthography of the species’ names, a thorough georeferencing process is carried out to obtain a spatially explicit database containing as many records as possible for each species. After this, records outside continental boundaries were deleted and a final dataset was produced for analyses.

These are the 34 different collections from which data were readily available:

  1. Árboles de la Península de Yucatán, Flora del Distrito de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca y Familia Asteraceae en México (IBUNAM)
  2. Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
  3. Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
  4. California State University, Chico
  5. CIAT-Genetic Resources Unit
  6. Colecciones de George Boole Hinton depositadas en el herbario de Kew: Familia Leguminosae
  7. Daniel Debouck - Cahiers de Phaséologie
  8. DAO Herbarium Type Specimens
  9. Ejemplares tipo de plantas vasculares del Herbario de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México (ENCB, IPN)
  10. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
  11. Freytag and Debouck (2002)
  12. GRIN
  13. Harvard University Herbaria
  14. Herbario de la Universidad de Arizona, EUA
  15. Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México (IE-BAJIO)
  16. Herbarium (UNA)
  17. Herbarium de Geo. B. Hinton, México
  18. Herbier de la Guyane
  19. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales
  20. ITIS
  21. Missouri Botanical Garden
  22. National Botanic Garden of Belgium (NBGB)
  23. National Vegetable Germplasm Bank, Mexico (BANGEV)
  24. Native Seeds/SEARCH (NSS)
  25. New York Botanical Garden (NYBG)
  26. NMNH Botany Collections
  27. Phanerogamie
  28. Repatriación de datos del Herbario de Arizona (ARIZ)
  29. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  30. The AAU Herbarium Database
  31. The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
  32. United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
  33. USDA PLANTS Database
  34. Vascular Plant Type Specimens

Downloads

Climatic niche model for P. acutifolius var. acutifolius
Climatic niche model for P. acutifolius var. tenuifolius
Climatic niche model for P. acutifolius
Climatic niche model for P. amblyosepalus
Climatic niche model for P. angustissimus
Climatic niche model for P. augusti
Climatic niche model for P. coccineus subsp. coccineus
Climatic niche model for P. coccineus
Climatic niche model for P. costaricensis
Climatic niche model for P. dumosus
Climatic niche model for P. filiformis
Climatic niche model for P. glabellus
Climatic niche model for P. grayanus
Climatic niche model for P. leptostachyus subsp. leptostachyus
Climatic niche model for P. leptostachyus
Climatic niche model for P. lunatus
Climatic niche model for P. maculatus subsp. maculatus
Climatic niche model for P. maculatus subsp. ritensis
Climatic niche model for P. maculatus
Climatic niche model for P. neglectus
Climatic niche model for P. nelsonii
Climatic niche model for P. oligospermus
Climatic niche model for P. pachyrrhizoides
Climatic niche model for P. parvifolius
Climatic niche model for P. parvulus
Climatic niche model for P. pauciflorus
Climatic niche model for P. pedicellatus
Climatic niche model for P. pluriflorus
Climatic niche model for P. polystachios
Climatic niche model for P. talamancensis
Climatic niche model for P. tuerckheimii
Climatic niche model for P. vulgaris
Climatic niche model for P. xanthotrichus
Climatic niche model for P. zimapanensis
Phaseolus potential collecting zones
Phaseolus potential collecting richness
Predicted species richness under current climatic conditions
Predicted species richness under future climatic conditions
Changes on predicted species richness due to climate change
Sampling density (200km cell size) for germplasm accessions
Sampling density (200km cell size) for herbarium samples
Conservation priorities list for Phaseolus genepool
Dataset used for this analysis

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3 Comments to “Phaseolus genepool”

  1. Jorge Berny says:

    Hi,

    I´m Jorge Berny. A researcher of INIFAP in Yucatan, Mexico. I work mainly on genetics and breeding of Capsicum, and Phaseolus (vulgaris and Lunatus) and Vigna. I´ll be starting a GCDT sponsored project about terminal drought and begomivirus resistance of the Yucatan peninsula bean landraces. Anyway, just to let you know that there is great variability in the cultivated (maize-bean system) and wild phaseolus vulgaris and lunatus. We have several accesions in our collection and also further collection activities could be very valuable. I´ll be more than glad to collaborate. Also in Capsicum if you are interested.

    With regards,

    Jorge C. Berny

  2. Julian says:

    Great to hear that Jorge!. We’re developing also Gap Analyses on cropped accessions (landraces, breeding materials), so, besides passport data (which is key for us), any characterization, or genetic level data would be very useful to us (either from wild species or cropped accessions).

    As we are also interested on validation of our method, it would be great any further collection plans and their respective results. We appreciate your interest and will look forward for any input data you may be able to provide on both wild species or cropped accessions. We have georreferencing and correction tools, so, if you are lack of lat/lon data but have collection site names (locality and municipalities names) we could add the coordinates via our tools and then give you the data back.

    Let us know how do you want to move forward on this. If needed, you can write directly to Nora and/or me (in the contact us link just at the top-right of the page).

  3. Jeremy says:

    Wonderful resource. One thing; the View in google Earth link does not work for me. I get error “This Virtual Directory does not allow contents to be listed.”

    Thanks.

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